Research

My primary area of research targets meaningful work and work as a calling. A sense of calling (i.e., a transcendent summons toward purposeful work with prosocial motives) is a particular expression of meaningful work, one that is associated with substantial benefits (and also, paradoxically, some drawbacks) to career-related and general well-being.  To date, I have collaborated with colleagues and students on efforts to:

  • establish “calling” as a viable construct within vocational psychology and organizational behavior (e.g., Dik & Duffy, 2012);
  • clarify the meaning of calling (e.g., Dik & Duffy, 2009; Dik & Shimizu, 2019; Hunter, Dik, & Banning, 2012; Shimizu, Dik & Conner, 2019; Zhang, Dik, Wei, & Zhang, 2015);
  • develop strategies for measuring seeking, perceiving, and living a calling (Dik, Eldridge, Duffy, & Steger, 2012; Dik, Sargent & Steger, 2008; Duffy, Bott, Allan, Torrey, & Dik, 2012) and the experience of meaningful work (Steger, Dik, & Duffy, 2012);
  • estimate the prevalence of calling and differences across groups (White, Marsh, Dik, & Beseler, under review);
  • investigate correlates of calling (see Dik, Steger, & Autin, 2020, for a review);
  • propose the Work as a Calling Theory (WCT; Duffy, Dik, Douglass, Autin, & Velez, 2018); and
  • explore and test career development interventions that promote a sense of calling and purpose (e.g., Dik & Duffy, 2015; Dik, Duffy, Allan, O’Donnell, Shim, & Steger, 2015; Dik, Duffy, & Eldridge, 2009; Dik, Duffy, & Steger, 2012; Dik, Scholljegerdes, Ahn, & Shim, 2015; Dik & Steger,2008).

Current projects are investigating (a) the predictive dynamics among the three dimensions of calling; (b) aspects of calling’s “dark side”; (c) narrative and expressive writing interventions to promote a sense of calling; and (d) calling’s links to religion and spirituality.

Other research interests and new directions include:

  • The intersection of Christian theology and vocational psychology (Dik, 2020a; Dik, 2020b).
  • Effectiveness of, and predictive analytics within, online career assessment systems (this work is mainly proprietary, and supports jobZology’s PathwayU platform).
  • Vocational interest measurement (e.g., Dik & Hansen, 2011; Dik & Rottinghaus, 2013)
  • Familial and social support and well-being among university students and emerging adults (e.g., Lee & Dik, 2017; Lee, Goldstein & Dik, 2018).
  • International collaborations (e.g., Lips-Wiersma, Wright, & Dik, 2016; Lysova, Dik, Duffy, Khapova, & Arthur, 2019; Zhang et al., 2015).

Selected publications (for a complete list, see my CV or Google Scholar profile):

Dik, B. J. (2020a). Redeeming work: A guide to discerning God’s calling for your career. West Conshohocken PA: Templeton Press.

Dik, B. J. (2020b). Why Faith@Work needs vocational psychology: Five key findings. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 39, 141-149.

Dik, B. J., Steger, M. F., & Autin, K. (2020). Calling, meaning, and volition: Emerging perspectives. In S. Brown & R. Lent (Eds). Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (3rd ed, pp. 237-270). New York: Wiley.

Dik, B. J., & Shimizu, A. B. (2019). Multiple meanings of calling: Next steps for studying an evolving construct. Journal of Career Assessment, 27, 323-334.

Lysova, E., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., Khapova, S. N., & Arthur, M. B. (2019). Callings and careers: New insights and future directions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 114, 1-6.

Shimizu, A. B., Dik, B. J., & Conner, B. T. (2019). Conceptualizing calling: Cluster and taxometric analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 114, 7-18.

Duffy, R. D., Dik, B. J., Douglass, R. P., England, J. W., Velez, B. L. (2018). Work as a calling: A theoretical model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65, 423-439.

Lee, C-Y. S., Goldstein, S., & Dik, B. J. (2018). The relational context of social support in young adults: Links with stress and well-being. Journal of Adult Development, 25, 25-36.

Lee, C-Y. S. & Dik, B. J. (2017). Associations among stress, gender, sources of social support, and health among emerging adults. Stress and Health, 33, 378-388.

Lips-Wiersma, M., Wright, S., & Dik, B. J. (2016). Meaningful work: Differences among blue-,
pink-, and white-collar occupations. Career Development International, 21, 534-551.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). Strategies for discerning and living a calling. In P. Hartung, M. Savickas & B. Walsh (Eds.) APA Handbook of Career Intervention (pp. 305-317).Washington, D.C.: APA.

Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., O’Donnell, M., Shim, Y., & Steger, M. F. (2015). Purpose and meaning in career development applications. The Counseling Psychologist, 43, 558-585.

Dik, B. J., Scholljegerdes, K. A., Ahn, J., & Shim, Y. (2015.) A randomized controlled trial of a religiously-tailored career intervention with Christian clients. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 34, 340-353.

Zhang, C., Dik, B. J., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Work as a calling in China: A qualitative study of Chinese college students. Journal of Career Assessment, 23, 236-249.

Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2013). Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 428-436.

Dik, B. J., & Rottinghaus, P. J. (2013). Assessments of interests. In K. F. Geisinger (Ed.), APA Handbook of Testing and Assessment in Psychology (pp. 325-348). Washington, D.C.: APA.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Make your job a calling: How the psychology of vocation can change your life at work. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.

Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Steger, M. F. (2012). Enhancing social justice by promoting prosocialvalues in career development interventions. Counseling and Values, 57, 31-57.

Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20, 242-263.

Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., Torrey, C. L., & Dik, B. J. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59, 50-59.

Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20, 322-337.

Dik, B. J., & Hansen, J. C. (2011). Moderation of P-E Fit – job satisfaction relations. Journal of Career Assessment, 19, 21-34.

Hunter, I., Dik, B. J., & Banning, J. (2010.) College student’s perception of calling in work and life: A qualitative investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 178-186.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 424-450.

Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Eldridge, B. M. (2009). Calling and vocation in career counseling: Recommendations for promoting meaningful work. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 625-632.

Dik, B. J., Sargent, A. M., & Steger, M. F. (2008). Career development strivings: Assessing goals and motivation in career decision-making and planning. Journal of Career Development, 35, 23-41.

Dik, B. J., & Steger, M. F. (2008). Randomized trial of a calling-infused career workshop incorporating counselor self-disclosure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 203-211.